Discover the Secret to Perfecting Tahdig, the Most Coveted Dish in Persian Cuisine

Tahdig, the most coveted treat at a Persian meal—at times referred to as the jewel or the holy grail of Persian cooking, or the pièce de résistance of the Persian cook—is that delicious, buttery, golden, crunchy, round layer formed at the bottom of a pot of rice. Often fought over by family members and guests during meals, tahdig is considered a life-altering gustatory experience by some first timers and sparks fierce fury and competition among Persian home cooks. It routinely disappears seconds after having been put on the dinner table.

Side angle view of Tahdig arrange on a mound of rice on a blue platter

Literally translated, the Persian word tahdig (ته دیگ) means “bottom of the pot.” The classic process of making tahdig is part of traditional Persian fluffy steamed rice dishes such as chelow. It involves long-grain rice going through the stages of being thoroughly washed, soaked in salted water for several hours, parboiled in salted boiling water for several minutes, drained, rinsed with cold water, and then slowly steamed in a tightly covered pot, during which time the tahdig is formed as the rice gently crisps in butter at the bottom of the pot. The tahdig is then removed and served in broken golden shards or whole as a magnificent centerpiece.

I have written an extensive article on making chelow, which also includes a recipe that is largely identical to this one, as the process for making chelow also produces tahdig as a byproduct (this recipe leans a little harder into the art of perfecting tahdig, but they are otherwise the same). But since there’s so much to say about both chelow and tahdig, the focus of the headnote in each article is significantly different. To learn more about the larger story of chelow, make sure to read that headnote as well.

Overhead view of a single piece of tahdig broken off
Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari

There is a sense of mystery associated with making tahdig. It is formed on the very bottom of the pot, well-hidden under a mound of parboiled rice, all while the the pot is tightly lidded. Unlike many other common food preparations, you can’t easily see it, smell it, touch it, hear it, or taste it while it’s being formed. Meanwhile the anticipation builds. Is it ready yet? Has it gotten crunchy and golden enough yet? Has it burned? Not to worry. The proven recipe and techniques detailed below will clear away the mystery; rewarding you and your fellow diners with the ultimate crunchy rice.

My favorite narrative about how tahdig came about dates to the royal menus of the kings of Iran’s Qajar Dynasty who ruled the Persian Empire in 1800s. According to this folkloric narrative, the servants who worked in the king’s residence would have their meals using the leftovers after the chef had served the king’s table. One day, the servants started arguing loudly over who would get the crunchy rice at the bottom of the pot. The commotion over the crunchy rice eventually reached the king and he asked that some of it be brought to him. The king enjoyed eating it, and ordered that this be served to him on a regular basis.

Whatever the true story, by the end of the nineteenth century, tahdig had become part of the diet of high-ranking and well-to-do families in Iran. Two of the earliest Persian cookbooks intended for Iranian urban housewives, written in Persian and published in the early 1900s, include explicit instructions for making tahdig. The principles behind tahdig in these early cookbooks have been—and continue to be—applied by Persian home cooks. The recipe provided here is consistent with these century-old practices, but adapted for a modern Western home kitchen.

You can’t talk about a golden, crispy crust of rice without talking about the Mailiard reaction, the same phenomenon that has a hand in creating the crunchy exterior of a baguette, golden French fries, and the coppery-crisp skin of a roast chicken. It is defined by the complex sequence of transformations that takes place when high heat is applied to amino acids and sugars in presence of some moisture in food, resulting in the development of highly desirable textures, colors, flavors, and aromas.

Close up view of Tahdig on a plate
Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari

In making tahdig, however, the Millard reaction needs a second food-science partner to do the job: starch gelatinization. During the parboiling stage, in the presence of water and heat, starch granules in rice grains lose their crystalline structure, start to absorb water, and swell, i.e., they undergo gelatinization. It is these hydrated (gelatinized) rice grains at the bottom of the pot that are subjected to high heat from the stove burner and transform via the Maillard reaction, resulting in the unique texture, color, flavor, and aroma that makes tahdig so irresistible.

You may be wondering why the rest of the rice in the pot doesn’t get crunchy. With an appreciable amount of moisture present in the rest of the pot in the form of steam, and the highly hydrated rice mound above the tahdig layer, the temperature in the rest of the pot remains at just about the boiling point of water of 212° F (100° C), too low for the Maillard reaction to occur. This duality of Maillard reaction doing its magic at the bottom of the pot but not in the rest of the vessel is how tahdig can be crunchy on one side with fluffy rice grains hanging from the other.

It has been said that it takes years to perfect the art of making good tahdig. Having thought and observed others over the years, I have to disagree with that premise. The trick to making good tahdig is threefold:

  • to take advantage of a proven recipe and its associated methods;
  • to get to know your specific pots and your heat source;
  • and to take careful notes from the first couple of times you make it to improve the next attempt.

Even if your tahdig does not come out perfect the first couple of times, it will still taste delicious. Moreover, these initial attempts are highly valuable as they will tell you, for example, whether you need more or less heat and whether you need to cook the tahdig for a longer or shorter period of time on a subsequent attempt.

First and foremost, tahdig is served as an accompaniment along with the Persian rice dish that created it. And this is an important point—tahdig is not the entire rice dish, but instead the golden crust that is the byproduct of the rice dish itself.

Tahdig ontop of platter of Persian rice
Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari

Traditionally, pieces of tahdig are scraped off the bottom of the pot and served either on the same platter as the accompanying rice dish or on a separate smaller plate. If served on a separate plate, it is passed around the table apart from the rice platter. With the proliferation of nonstick cooking vessels, it’s now possible to remove the whole unbroken layer of tahdig from the bottom of the pot and serve it in one piece.

Persian rice dishes are often served along with one of the numerous types of exquisite slow-cooked braises called “khoresh” (خورش). A common practice among Persian food lovers is to pour some of the braise over their pieces of tahdig to soak up some of the wonderful savory flavors of the braise. In fact, in Persian restaurants, if one simply orders a side of tahdig, it often comes with a small portion of one the more popular khoreshes; typically, either the yellow split pea khoresh—khoresh-é-gheimeh—or the green herb khoresh—khoresh-é-sabzi—to pour over the crunchy rice. (By the way, many Persian restaurants do not list tahdig on the menu simply because, although they serve plenty of rice dishes, there isn’t enough tahdig generated to give to each customer. But they often have some in the kitchen. If you want some, kindly and quietly ask your waiter and you may be lucky enough to get some.)

Overhead view of a plate of Tahdig with some sauces
Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari

With tahdig, there is no concept of leftovers as it is the portion of the meal that disappears completely from the table. There is never enough of it to the point that even individual tahdig crumbs are not wasted.

Before the invention of nonstick cooking vessels, tahdig had to be scraped out of the bottom of the pot in small or large pieces. This process always created a small amount of individual crunchy rice kernels sitting at the bottom of the pot. Some home cooks, including my maternal grandmother, would then throw a fistful of fluffy cooked rice onto the bottom of the pot to capture both the tahdig crumbs and the naturally remaining butter from the bottom of the pot. The cook would then put a few tablespoons of the mixture in the palm of one hand, close their fist, and form an oblong-shaped delightful snack approximately 2 centimeters wide and 4 centimeters long. In Persian, the common name for this scarce creation is “changāli,” meaning something that was formed by closing fingers towards the palm of the hand forming a fist. The cook would then give these special treats to her or his “special people” at the table (as there would only be at most two or three of them) such as the younger members of the family. A double sign of love and caring of the cook, first for not letting anything go to waste and second for sharing the treats with the most loved ones at the table.

Overhead view of obolong shaped rice and tahdig cakes on a plate
Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari

While tahdig doesn’t require much in terms of specialized equipment, there are some important details to note about the gear you use:

  • The Colander: Most ordinary vegetable colanders are not appropriate for straining rice, as rice grains will slip through the large holes. Handheld fine-mesh strainers are also not appropriate once the rice is parboiled because of their small volume. What is needed is a large, free-standing small-hole colander. If you are going to buy a new one, get the largest one that fits in your sink: The larger the colander, the more the parboiled rice can spread out and the pressure it will put on itself, risking breakage. (Note, though, that you will use a fine-mesh strainer when rinsing the raw rice, as the grains at that point are so thin that they can even get stuck in the holes of a small-hole colander.)
  • Pot: Although you can make tahdig in practically any type of pot, there are a few things that you may want to keep in mind. For the parboiling stage, the pot size is more important than the type of pot. You want a large enough pot to allow the rice grains to float and move around freely by themselves while the water is boiling vigorously—that’s at a minimum a six-quart pot for three cups of rice, or a four-quart pot for two cups of rice—otherwise the rice grains will not swell or elongate properly. Typically, the same pot that had been used for parboiling is used again for the second steaming stage of cooking. During the second cooking stage, regardless of what type of pot is used, a layer of crunchy rice called tahdig, a Persian delicacy, is formed at the bottom of the pot. A well-seasoned cast-iron or glazed Dutch oven will make it easier to scrape out the crunchy layer. A nonstick pot will allow you to get the tahdig out in one piece.
  • Towel-Wrapped-Lid: Covering the pot during the steaming stage with a towel-wrapped-lid is an ancient Persian cookery technique. It has been such an important technique that there is a word for the towel-wrapped-lid in Persian language. It is called damkoni (دمکنی). There are damkoni-fitted pot lid covers with elastic that slip over pot lids (a.k.a. Persian rice bonnet) that you can purchase online. They do the job, but they are no better than just using a clean, thick kitchen towel. Just be careful not to let the towel hang down the side or the pot, which would create a fire hazard.
  • Heat Diffuser: One of the most important aspects of making good tahdig is to ensure even heat distribution during the steaming stage—this leads to more even browning and crisping on the bottom of the pot. While not required, many Iranian home cooks use an inexpensive heat diffuser, a.k.a. A flamer tamer. Alternative means of ensuring even heating include using heavy-bottom pots and rotating your pot every 10 minutes. I often use a combination of these techniques to maximize good results.
Overhead view of equipment used for Tahdig
Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari

Some may be wondering about alternate methods and equipment for producing tahdig, but very few electric rice cookers are designed to do justice to basmati rice let alone making tahdig. There is, however, one brand of electric rice cooker that does an acceptable job of making tahdig: The Pars rice cookers, which are made in Iran but are available in the Western world. They use an absorption method (as opposed to steaming) to cook the rice. They are fully automatic and come in a variety of sizes from 3- to 15-cup capacity. Since they use absorption to cook the rice, the resulting rice is not as light and fluffy, but their internal automatic electric heating system is designed to produce a relatively thin but acceptable crunchy tahdig in one hour. I use this if I am in a hurry, if I have forgotten to soak my rice ahead of time, if I am not cooking for guests, if I am cooking for one or two, and if I want tahdig badly—a lot of ifs there.

How about making tahdig in an Instant Pot? I have tested several different techniques (tricks) to make tahdig in an Instant Pot. I do not recommend it whatsoever. In my tests, not much time was saved, and more importantly, the results were quite unacceptable. There is also a relatively new single-use-kitchen-appliance on the market called The Crispy Rice Cooker. I have not tested it myself yet. Based on what I have read and the videos I have watched, it appears to be a combined non-stick electric frying pan and an extremely shallow (1.5-inch tall) round (6-inch diameter) absorption-style rice cooker. It appears to have been designed for preparing single-servings of certain Southeast Asian rice dishes and not appropriate for making traditional Persian tahdig.

Over the years, Persian home cooks have turned tahdig making into a genre of its own by incorporating other ingredients into the process.

Some of the common ingredients used by Persian cooks to enhance the flavor and modify the texture of their tahdig include steeped liquid saffron, yogurt, or egg yolk. Adding a few teaspoons of steeped liquid saffron to the bottom of the pot enhances both the color and the aroma of the tahdig. Adding yogurt reduces the amount of oil needed and introduces a good amount of tanginess to the tahdig. The addition of egg yolk, meanwhile, results in a slightly more pliable tahdig.

Persian cooks have also expanded the technique of creating a crunchy layer of rice at the bottom of the pot to other ingredients besides rice by carefully incorporating vegetables, bread, meat, poultry, or seafood into the process. In addition to the creation of an expanded set of crunchy delights, these modified methods provide an opportunity for other ingredients to be cooked at the same time and within the same vessel as the rice. Incorporating slices of potato into the tahdig is the most popular of such modifications, followed in popularity by adding various flatbreads (in particular, Persian lavash).

Overhead view of a potato tahdig
Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari

My recommendation, however, is to start your tahdig journey with just the basic rice version using the basic tahdig recipe detailed below. After making the basic rice version once or twice, then try some of the variations. Instructions for making several variations are provided below.

For each of the following variations, only the additional needed ingredients are listed.

Characteristics: The resulting tahdig will have a uniform bright orange color and a strong saffron aroma.

To Make: Steep an additional 1/4 teaspoon ground saffron in 2 tablespoons (30ml) hot water. At Step 5 of the basic recipe, add the steeped saffron liquid to the melted butter and water in the pot. Then add 1 1/2 cups parboiled rice to the pot and thoroughly but gently mix with saffron mixture until evenly coated. Spread rice evenly across the bottom of the pot, then proceed with the recipe, building the mound by gently piling the remaining parboiled rice on top and forming holes in the mound.

Characteristics: The resulting tahdig will have a slightly smoother, yet still crunchy, surface with a pleasant tangy flavor. If using full-fat yogurt, you can reduce the amount of butter a bit. Yogurt tahdig typically comes off the bottom of the pot a bit easier than the basic recipe.

To Make: At Step 5 of the basic recipe, thoroughly mix 1/2 cup yogurt (any unflavored yogurt will work, but I prefer the richness that the tangiest, fullest-fat yogurt provides) to the melted butter and water in the pot. Then add 1 1/2 cups parboiled rice to the pot and thoroughly but gently mix with yogurt mixture until evenly coated. Spread rice evenly across the bottom of the pot, then proceed with the recipe, building the mound by gently piling the remaining parboiled rice on top and forming holes in the mound.

Characteristics:  This variation features a buttery layer of crispy potato rounds with pieces of crunchy rice surrounding them—the best of both worlds! You can slice the potatoes thicker for a more simple pattern of non-overlapping pieces, or go thinner and cover the bottom of the pot with the potato rounds overlapping, for a result that looks like pommes Anna! (Note that fewer pieces of potato will create more crispy rice, while an overlapping pattern will cover more of the surface, creating more crispy potato but less crispy rice.)

Overhead view of potato tahdig
Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari

To Make: In Steps 4 and 5 of the basic recipe, instead of a mixture of water and melted butter, melt the butter alone and add it to the pot, swirling to coat the bottom of the pot evenly. Thinly slice a peeled Yukon Gold potato (either 1/4 inch thick, for fewer, thicker slices, or 1/8 inch thick for more thin ones). Cover the bottom of the pot with the sliced potato rounds in a ringed pattern, either overlapping (if using thinner slices) or not (if using thicker ones). Sprinkle the potatoes all over with 1/4 teaspoon of salt. Now follow the rest of Step 5 by gently spooning the parboiled rice into the center of the bottom of the pot forming a mound and making holes.

Characteristics: The resulting tahdig will have a smoother surface, will be more pliable, and will have a slight omelet aroma.

At Step 5 of the basic recipe, thoroughly mix 1 large egg yolk with the melted butter and water in the pot. Add 1 1/2 cups parboiled rice to the pot and thoroughly but gently mix with yolk mixture until evenly coated. Spread rice evenly across the bottom of the pot, then proceed with the recipe, building the mound by gently piling the remaining parboiled rice on top and forming holes in the mound.

Characteristics: This will be one of the richest and most aromatic of the tahdig varieties.

To Make: Simply combine the additional ingredients and instructions called for above for saffron tahdig, yogurt tahdig, and egg yolk tahdig, shortening steaming time by 10 minutes per the egg yolk and yogurt tahdig instructions.

Characteristics: This variation results in a crunchy, buttery layer of lavash bread (possibly more delicious than any buttered toast)—not crunchy rice. Regardless of the kind of pot you use, it rarely sticks to the bottom of the pot and usually comes out in one piece. If your lavash bread is very thin, consider making two layers with some extra melted butter brushed in between.

Overhead view of Lavash Tahdig
Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari

To Make: In Steps 4 and 5 of the basic recipe, instead of a mixture of water and melted butter, melt the butter alone and add it to the pot, swirling to coat the bottom of the pot evenly. Cover the bottom of the pot with a layer of lavash bread, either as one round piece covering the entire bottom of the pot or with torn smaller pieces making a lavash patchwork. Now follow the rest of Step 5 by gently spooning the parboiled rice into the center of the bottom of the pot forming a mound and making holes.

Instead of Lavash bread, you can use flour or corn tortillas. You can also cover the bottom of the pot with lettuce leaves (romaine is most common but other kinds work) resulting in a crunchy round layer of lettuce! Instead of potato rounds, you can use other vegetables like eggplant, zucchini, fennel, etc. (they won’t all get as crispy as potatoes and rice, but they will be delicious). You can even cover the bottom of the pot with chicken wings—using only the wing flats ensures better contact with the bottom of the pan than drumettes or whole wings—or shelled shrimp, though there is the downside of the shrimp being overcooked in order to get them to the crispy stage in the steaming pot. The world of tahdig variations is only limited by your imagination.

  • 2 cups basmati rice (13 3/4 ounces; 390g)
  • 6 tablespoons (54g) Diamond Crystal kosher salt, divided, plus more as needed; for table salt, use half as much by volume or the same weight
  • 3 tablespoons (42g) unsalted butter (see notes)
  • 2 generous pinches ground saffron (optional)
  1. In a large bowl, cover rice with enough cold water to cover by 1-inch. Using your hand, swirl the rice around until the water turns cloudy. Pour off the cloudy water through a fine-mesh strainer to catch any escaping rice, then return rice to bowl and refill with fresh cold water. Repeat the process until the water runs clear, about 5 or 6 times. Drain the washed rice well in the colander.

    Two image collage of washing rice in a bowl until the water turns clear
    Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari
  2. Return drained rice to large bowl along with 3 tablespoons (27g) salt. Add enough cold tap water to cover the rice by 1 inch. Gently stir to dissolve the salt. Let stand at room temperature for 2 hours. Drain in the small-hole colander.

    Overhead view of rest in a metal bowl resting
    Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari
  3. In a large nonstick pot or enameled Dutch oven, bring 2 quarts (1.9L) water to a rolling boil over high heat. Add 3 tablespoons (27g) salt. Add drained rice, then gently stir to ensure that there is no clumped rice and there is no rice stuck to the bottom of the pot. Return to a vigorous boil, then cook until the the rice has grown 1.5 to 2 times in length and the outside of each grain is cooked but not mushy and the center of the grain shows some resistance, 5 to 8 minutes. Immediately remove from heat and drain through a small-hole colander.

    Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari
  4. Rinse rice well with cold water for about 30 seconds (you want to stop the cooking and to wash off any excess starch released during boiling). Taste a few grains of rice for saltiness; if more seasoning is desired, sprinkle rice all over with 1 teaspoon salt. In a small pot, combine butter with 1/3 cup (80ml) water and heat just until butter is melted. If using saffron, in a very small bowl, steep ground saffron in two tablespoons of hot water; set aside.

    Overhead view of rinsing rice after paraboiling it
    Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari
  5. Wash the pot used to parboil the rice. Pour half of the water and butter mixture into the pot. Using a large spoon or a spatula, gently mound the parboiled rice into the center of the bottom of the pot; do not dump the rice from the colander. Instead, carefully build the mound up, making sure the rice forms a mountain shape and does not touch the sides of the pot. Using the handle of a wooden spoon, make 6 to 8 holes deep into the mound including one in the center (this will facilitate the release of steam from the lower parts of the mound).

    Two image collage of rice mounded in a pot and 7 holes poked into the mound of rice
    Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari
  6. Wrap the pot’s lid in a clean, thick kitchen towel, then cover the pot tightly (wrapping the lid in a kitchen towel prevents steam from escaping and absorbs any moisture that would have condensed on the inside of the lid and dripped down on the rice). Set over medium-high heat (use a heat diffuser, if you have one, for more even browning) and cook until you can hear sizzling sounds inside the pot and steam begins to fill it (you can carefully lift the lid to peak if unsure), about 5 minutes. Uncover pot, gently pour the remaining water-butter mixture over the rice mound, then re-cover pot with the towel-wrapped lid. Reduce heat to medium-low and cook, rotating the pot a quarter-turn every 10 to 15 minutes, until rice is tender and fluffy, about 45 minutes. Continue cooking about 10 minutes longer to help in the formation of the tahdig (you can go even longer for a thicker and crunchier tahdig, though it’s best to lower the heat even further if you do so to minimize the risk of burning).

    Side view of pot wrapped in a towel
    Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari
  7. Fill your sink with 1 inch cold water. Without taking the lid off the pot, set the rice pot immediately in the water filled sink (alternatively, set the pot on top of a thoroughly wet kitchen towel); this will help in getting the tahdig out. Let stand 4 minutes. Move the pot to your kitchen counter and carefully remove the lid (you want to avoid any hot steam that might come out, and also make sure not to let any condensed water drip down onto the rice mound).

    Overhead view of pot with lid in a sink with water
    Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari
  8. Using a slotted spoon or a spatula, and starting from the top of the mound of rice in the pot, gently spoon the rice onto the center of a serving platter to form a mound. After each spoonful, fluff the rice in the pot before transferring the next spoonful. Continue until you reach the near bottom of the pot where you may find a crunchy layer of rice; leave it in the pot for now. If using saffron, add 2 or 3 heaping tablespoons of cooked rice to the prepared saffron water and stir to evenly coat. Sprinkle the golden yellow grains of saffroned rice garnish on top of the mound of rice in the serving platter, then serve.

    Four image collage of scooping rice out of pot onto a platter, rice on platter, scooping saffron rice ontop and overhead view of saffron rice topped mound
    Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari
  9. If using a nonstick pot, invert a round serving platter (slightly wider than the diameter of the pot) on top of the pot. Firmly grab both the serving platter and the pot and carefully but quickly flip them over together. Lift off the pot. The entire tahdig should have released from the bottom of the pot onto the serving platter in one piece. If you have not used a non-stick pot, there is still a chance that the tahdig may come out in one piece. Run a thin, flexible silicone spatula around the bottom of the pot to gently separate the edges of the tahdig from the side of the pot. Go around a couple of times, each time a bit deeper between the tahdig and the bottom of the pot. If you can feel that the entire tahdig has come loose, use the same flipping technique described above for a nonstick pot. If the tahdig is still stuck to the bottom of the pot (which is common), use a spoon or flat spatula to remove the tahdig in as large of pieces as possible. Arrange the crispy, beautiful, irresistible tahdig pieces on a separate small plate or arrange on the same serving platter as the fluffy rice.

    Four image collage showing the steps of placing a plate over the pot of rice, inverting the pot and plate, pot removed from plate and close up of tahdig on plate
    Serious Eats / Nader Mehravari

Fine-mesh strainer, small-hole colander, large pot (preferably nonstick or enameled cast iron), heat diffuser (optional but recommended)

The recipe detailed above calls for using Indian or Pakistani basmati rice. If you happen to get your hands on rice grown in Iran, since their grains are harder than Indian and Pakistani basmati rice, increase the soaking time to four hours. If you use American basmati rice, since they are typically not aged, reduce the soaking time to 30 minutes.

You can substitute the butter with ghee or vegetable oil, if desired, though butter will yield the most aromatic and rich-tasting tahdig.

There are a few spots during the parboiling stage and the steaming stage where it is impossible to specify the exact timing due to variability in the type of rice that you might be using, the heat transfer properties of your cooking vessels, the settings of your burners, etc. That is why the recipe provides other means to monitor the cooking process: by tasting, by feeling, by biting, by listening, etc. For more consistent results, the first time you are making this recipe, you should take notes as to what you did, then note needed adjustments that will enhance the results based on what you’re using in your kitchen. In addition, to ensure consistency, I always use the same burner on my home kitchen’s stove to make chelow; I have even marked the control knob for that burner with additional indicators for better heat control, and always use the same two pots when making chelow to avoid any unnecessary variables.

If you don’t have time to soak the rice for the recommended 2 hours, you can soak it for 1 hour instead.

When I make tahdig and chelow (Persian rice) at home, I always make much more than I need for the immediate meal because if stored and warmed up properly, the aroma, texture and fluffiness of the leftover rice is nearly as good as freshly cooked chelow. As I wrote before, there’s never any leftover tahdig, but you can store any leftover rice. To do so, remember that it’s best not to put warm cooked rice directly into the refrigerator, as it will turn your leftovers into clumps. Instead, spread your leftover warm rice onto a baking sheet as close to a single layer as possible, let cool at room temperature for 30 minutes, and then scoop into an airtight container. Refrigerate and use within 1 week or freeze for up to 2 months.

With regards to scaling the recipe for a smaller or larger amount of rice, use the following table:

 Dry rice  2 cups  3 cups  4 cups
 Unsalted butter  3 tablespoons  4 tablespoons  6 tablespoons
 Salt for soaking  3 tablespoons  1/4 cup  1/3 cup
 Water to prepare butter/water mixture 1/3 cup  1/2 cup 2/3 cup
 Salt for parboiling  4 quarts  6 quarts  8 quarts
 Salt, to taste 1-2 teaspoons  2-3 teaspoons  3-4 teaspoons
 Preferred width of the pot for steaming (this will often be the same pot as parboiling)  8-10 inches  10 inches  10 inches
 Approximate total steaming time  50 minutes 60 minutes  70 minutes

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